C++ Operator Precedence
The following table lists the precedence and associativity of C++ operators. Operators are listed top to bottom, in descending precedence.
||Suffix/postfix increment and decrement||Left-to-right|
||Element selection by reference|
||Element selection through pointer|
||Prefix increment and decrement||Right-to-left|
||Unary plus and minus|
||Logical NOT and bitwise NOT|
||Dynamic memory allocation|
||Dynamic memory deallocation|
||Pointer to member||Left-to-right|
||Multiplication, division, and remainder||Left-to-right|
||Addition and subtraction||Left-to-right|
||Bitwise left shift and right shift||Left-to-right|
||For relational operators < and ≤ respectively||Left-to-right|
||For relational operators > and ≥ respectively|
||For relational = and ≠ respectively||Left-to-right|
||Bitwise XOR (exclusive or)||Left-to-right|
||Bitwise OR (inclusive or)||Left-to-right|
||Direct assignment (provided by default for C++ classes)||Right-to-Left|
||Assignment by sum and difference|
||Assignment by product, quotient, and remainder|
||Assignment by bitwise left shift and right shift|
||Assignment by bitwise AND, XOR, and OR|
||Throw operator (exceptions throwing)||Right-to-Left|
When parsing an expression, an operator which is listed on some row will be bound tighter (as if by parentheses) to its arguments than any operator that is listed on a row further below it. For example, the expressions std::cout<<a&b and *p++ are parsed as (std::cout<<a)&b and *(p++), and not as std::cout<<(a&b) or (*p)++.
Operators that are in the same cell (there may be several rows of operators listed in a cell) are evaluated with the same precedence, in the given direction. For example, the expression a=b=c is parsed as a=(b=c), and not as (a=b)=c because of right-to-left associativity.
An operator's precedence is unaffected by overloading.
The standard itself doesn't specify precedence levels. They are derived from the grammar.